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2. Thota R, Gonzalez RS, Berlin J, Cardin DB, Shi C: Could the PD-1 Pathway Be a Potential Target for Treating Small Intestinal Adenocarcinoma? Am J Clin Pathol; 2017 Sep 01;148(3):208-214
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Could the PD-1 Pathway Be a Potential Target for Treating Small Intestinal Adenocarcinoma?
  • Objectives: The programmed death 1 (PD-1) pathway is upregulated in the immune microenvironment of many cancers.
  • In this study, we examined the PD-1 pathway and the immune microenvironment of small intestinal adenocarcinomas by immunohistochemistry.
  • Methods: From our department pathology archives we identified 42 small intestinal adenocarcinomas from between 2000 and 2015, with blocks available for IHC studies.
  • Tumors were immunohistochemically stained for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, PD-1, and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression.
  • Results: PD-1 was expressed by intratumoral and peritumoral lymphocytes in 35 of 42 (83%) cases.
  • PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and immune cells was observed in seven of 42 (17%), and 18 of 42 (43%) cases, respectively.
  • PD-L1 was mainly expressed by histiocytes capping cancerous glands/nests at the invasive front or by most tumor cells in medullary carcinomas.
  • All the PD-L1+ tumors also expressed PD-1.
  • The tumors expressing PD-L1 contained more CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells, but showed a lower CD4+/CD8+ ratio than those without expression of PD-L1.
  • Conclusions: PD-1 and PD-L1 are highly expressed by most small intestinal adenocarcinomas.
  • Blockage of the PD-1 pathway should be evaluated in the treatment of small intestinal adenocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Antigens, CD274 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Intestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Intestine, Small / metabolism. Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 28821192.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD274; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD274 protein, human; 0 / PDCD1 protein, human; 0 / Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; PD-1 / PD-L1 / Small bowel adenocarcinoma
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3. Razavi S, Ghasemi N, Mardani M, Salehi H: Remyelination improvement after neurotrophic factors secreting cells transplantation in rat spinal cord injury. Iran J Basic Med Sci; 2017 Apr;20(4):392-398
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Remyelination improvement after neurotrophic factors secreting cells transplantation in rat spinal cord injury.
  • OBJECTIVES: Neurotrophic factors secreting cells (NTS-SCs) may be a superior cell source for cell-based therapy in neurodegenerative diseases.
  • NTS-SCs are able to secrete some neurotrophic Such as nerve growth factor and glia-derived neurotrophic factor.
  • Our primary aim was to assess transplantation of neurotrophic factor secreting cells derived from human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) into the damaged spinal cord rats and determine the potential of these cells in remyelination.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: To this end, 40 adult male Wistar rats were categorized into four groups including; control, lysolecithin (Lysophosphatidylcholines or LPC), vehicle, and NTS-SCs transplan-tation.
  • Local demyelination was induced using LPC injection into the lateral column of spinal cord.
  • Seven days after the lysolecithin lesion, the cells transplantation was performed.
  • The ultrastructure of myelinated fibers was examined with a transmission electron microscope to determine the extent of myelin destruction and remyelinization 4 weeks post cell transplantation.
  • Moreover, the presence of oligodendrocyte in the lesion of spinal cord was assessed by immunohistochemistry procedure.
  • RESULTS: The results of current study indicated that in NTF-SCs transplantation group, the remyelination process and the mean of myelin sheath thickness as well as axonal diameters were significantly higher than other groups (<i>P</i><0.001).
  • Furthermore, immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that in NTF-SCs transplantation group more than 10 percent of transplanted cells were positive for specific markers of oligodendrocyte cells.
  • CONCLUSION: NTF-SCs transplantation represents a valuable option for cell-based therapy in the nervous tissue damages.

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  • (PMID = 28804608.001).
  • [ISSN] 2008-3866
  • [Journal-full-title] Iranian journal of basic medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Iran J Basic Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Lysolecithin lesion / Myelination / Neurotrophic factor-secreting cells (NTF-SCs) Spinal cord injury
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4. Mak M, Bell K, Ng W, Lee M: Nutritional status, management and clinical outcomes in patients with esophageal and gastro-oesophageal cancers: A descriptive study. Nutr Diet; 2017 Jul;74(3):229-235
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nutritional status, management and clinical outcomes in patients with esophageal and gastro-oesophageal cancers: A descriptive study.
  • AIM: The aims of this study were to investigate the nutritional management practice and nutritional status of patients with oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal cancers, and to propose strategies for improving their nutritional and clinical outcomes.
  • METHODS: All patients diagnosed with oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal cancers and treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy at the Liverpool Cancer Therapy Centre (between August 2010 and February 2014) were included in this retrospective study.
  • Patient and tumour characteristics, nutritional status and management were compared to clinical outcomes.
  • RESULTS: A total of 69 patients met the inclusion criteria.
  • The median weight loss prior to treatment commencement was 10.5% (Interquartile Range (IQR) = 6.6-15.4).
  • A decline in nutritional status continued throughout the treatment course.
  • The median percentage of weight loss during treatment was 3.53% (IQR = 0.00-6.84).
  • Seven and 19 patients required nutrition intervention using a feeding tube or stent insertion to manage dysphagia, respectively.
  • In patients treated with a curative intent, radiotherapy was completed in 100% of those with a nasogastric tube insertion as compared to 80% who had a stent insertion.
  • There was a higher percentage of patients from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) background, experiencing significant weight loss when compared with their non-CALD counterparts (P = 0.04).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal cancers commonly present with significant weight loss and this continues during the course of their anti-cancer treatment.
  • A standardised protocol of nutrition management for these cancer patients is recommended, focusing on assisting patients from CALD backgrounds.

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  • [Copyright] © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.
  • (PMID = 28731604.001).
  • [ISSN] 1747-0080
  • [Journal-full-title] Nutrition & dietetics: the journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nutr Diet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; dysphagia management / malnutrition / oesophageal cancer / weight loss
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5. Malcolm P, Lee S, Crea S, Siviy C, Saucedo F, Galiana I, Panizzolo FA, Holt KG, Walsh CJ: Varying negative work assistance at the ankle with a soft exosuit during loaded walking. J Neuroeng Rehabil; 2017 Jun 26;14(1):62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Varying negative work assistance at the ankle with a soft exosuit during loaded walking.
  • BACKGROUND: Only very recently, studies have shown that it is possible to reduce the metabolic rate of unloaded and loaded walking using robotic ankle exoskeletons.
  • Some studies obtained this result by means of high positive work assistance while others combined negative and positive work assistance.
  • There is no consensus about the isolated contribution of negative work assistance.
  • Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the effect of varying negative work assistance at the ankle joint while maintaining a fixed level of positive work assistance with a multi-articular soft exosuit.
  • METHODS: We tested eight participants during walking at 1.5 ms<sup>-1</sup> with a 23-kg backpack.
  • Participants wore a version of the exosuit that assisted plantarflexion via Bowden cables tethered to an off-board actuation platform.
  • In four active conditions we provided different rates of exosuit bilateral ankle negative work assistance ranging from 0.015 to 0.037 W kg<sup>-1</sup> and a fixed rate of positive work assistance of 0.19 W kg<sup>-1</sup>.
  • RESULTS: All active conditions significantly reduced metabolic rate by 11 to 15% compared to a reference condition, where the participants wore the exosuit but no assistance was provided.
  • We found no significant effect of negative work assistance.
  • However, there was a trend (p = .08) toward greater reduction in metabolic rate with increasing negative work assistance, which could be explained by observed reductions in biological ankle and hip joint power and moment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The non-significant trend of increasing negative work assistance with increasing reductions in metabolic rate motivates the value in further studies on the relative effects of negative and positive work assistance.
  • There may be benefit in varying negative work over a greater range or in isolation from positive work assistance.

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  • (PMID = 28651596.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-0003
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroeng Rehabil
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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6. Dithmer S, Staat C, Müller C, Ku MC, Pohlmann A, Niendorf T, Gehne N, Fallier-Becker P, Kittel Á, Walter FR, Veszelka S, Deli MA, Blasig R, Haseloff RF, Blasig IE, Winkler L: Claudin peptidomimetics modulate tissue barriers for enhanced drug delivery. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2017 Jun;1397(1):169-184
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Claudin peptidomimetics modulate tissue barriers for enhanced drug delivery.
  • The blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by the microvascular endothelium limits cerebral drug delivery.
  • The paraendothelial cleft is sealed by tight junctions (TJs) with a major contribution from claudin-5, which we selected as a target to modulate BBB permeability.
  • For this purpose, drug-enhancer peptides were designed based on the first extracellular loop (ECL) of claudin-5 to allow transient BBB permeabilization.
  • Peptidomimetics (C5C2 and derivatives, nanomolar affinity to claudin-5) size-selectively (≤40 kDa) and reversibly (12-48 h) increased the permeability of brain endothelial and claudin-5-transfected epithelial cell monolayers.
  • Upon peptide uptake, the number of TJ strand particles diminished, claudin-5 was downregulated and redistributed from cell-cell contacts to the cytosol, and the cell shape was altered.
  • Cellular permeability of doxorubicin (cytostatic drug, 580 Da) was enhanced after peptide administration.
  • Mouse studies (3.5 μmol/kg i.v.) confirmed that, for both C5C2 and a d-amino acid derivative, brain uptake of Gd-diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid (547 Da) was enhanced within 4 h of treatment.
  • On the basis of our functional data, circular dichroism measurements, molecular modeling, and docking experiments, we suggest an association model between β-sheets flanked by α-helices, formed by claudin-5 ECLs, and the peptides.
  • In conclusion, we identified claudin-5 peptidomimetics that improve drug delivery through endothelial and epithelial barriers expressing claudin-5.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood-Brain Barrier / drug effects. Claudin-5 / pharmacology. Endothelial Cells / drug effects. Peptidomimetics / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / pharmacokinetics. Brain / drug effects. Brain / metabolism. Cell Line. Cells, Cultured. Circular Dichroism. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / pharmacokinetics. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Gadolinium DTPA / administration & dosage. Gadolinium DTPA / pharmacokinetics. HEK293 Cells. Humans. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Microscopy, Confocal. Microscopy, Electron / methods. Models, Molecular. Permeability / drug effects. Protein Conformation. Rats. Rhodamines / administration & dosage. Rhodamines / pharmacokinetics. Tight Junctions / drug effects. Tight Junctions / metabolism. Tight Junctions / ultrastructure. Time-Lapse Imaging / methods

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  • [Copyright] © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.
  • (PMID = 28505395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-6632
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5-carboxytetramethylrhodamine succinimidyl ester; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Claudin-5; 0 / Peptidomimetics; 0 / Rhodamines; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; blood-brain barrier / cell-cell contact / claudin protein family / peptide / tight junction / tissue barrier
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7. Briggs CL: Towards Communicative Justice in Health. Med Anthropol; 2017 May-Jun;36(4):287-304
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Towards Communicative Justice in Health.
  • This article approaches care from a different angle by looking ethnographically at how it is shaped by structural differences in the power to control the circulation of knowledge.
  • I focus on an investigation conducted by people classified as "indigenous", of an epidemic that killed 38 children and young adults in a Venezuelan rainforest.
  • I trace how health/communicative inequities structured clinical interactions, documents, epidemiological investigations, news stories, and dialogues with healers, thwarting the identification of the epidemic, clinically identified as rabies.
  • Although the Bolivarian socialist government provided access to care, professionals denigrated parents' contributions to care and communication and reduced complex, unequal relations between languages to practical problems of translation.
  • Pointing to parallels with US social movements, I suggest that responding to demands for communicative justice in health requires seeing how health inequities are entangled with health/communicative inequities.
  • The typographical slash points to importance of challenging the subdisciplinary boundary-work that relegates their study to non-overlapping conversations in medical and linguistic anthropology.
  • [MeSH-major] Epidemics. Healthcare Disparities / ethnology. Medicine, Traditional. Social Justice
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anthropology, Medical. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Rabies / ethnology. Venezuela / ethnology

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Health Disparities.
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  • (PMID = 28350182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5882
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical anthropology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Anthropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Epidemics / health inequalities / indigenous health / linguistic anthropology / rabies
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8. Charnikhova TV, Gaus K, Lumbroso A, Sanders M, Vincken JP, De Mesmaeker A, Ruyter-Spira CP, Screpanti C, Bouwmeester HJ: Zealactones. Novel natural strigolactones from maize. Phytochemistry; 2017 May;137:123-131
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Zealactones. Novel natural strigolactones from maize.
  • In the root exudate and root extracts of maize hybrid cv NK Falkone seven putative strigolactones were detected using UPLC-TQ-MS-MS.
  • All seven compounds displayed MS-MS-fragmentation common for strigolactones and particularly the presence of a fragment of m/z 97 Da, which may indicate the presence of the so-called D-ring, suggests they are strigolactones.
  • The levels of all these putative strigolactones increased upon phosphate starvation and decreased upon fluridone (carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitor) treatment, both of which are a common response for strigolactones.
  • All seven compounds were subsequently isolated with prep-HPLC-MS.
  • They all exhibited Striga hermonthica seed germination inducing activity just as the synthetic strigolactone analog GR24.
  • The structure of two of the seven compounds was elucidated by NMR spectroscopy as: methyl (2E,3E)-4-(3,3-dimethyl-5-oxo-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)-2-(((4-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl)oxy)methylene)but-3-enoate (two diastereomers 1a and 1b).
  • Strigolactones (1a/b) are closely related to the methyl ester of carlactonoic acid (MeCLA) and heliolactone.
  • However, they contain a unique 4,4-dimethyltetrahydrofuran-2-one motif as the "A-ring" instead of the classical (di)methylcyclohexene.
  • Because these compounds were isolated from maize (Zea mays) we called them "zealactone 1a and 1b".
  • The implications of this discovery for our view on strigolactones and their biosynthesis are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] 4-Butyrolactone / analogs & derivatives. Lactones / chemistry. Plant Exudates / chemistry. Plant Roots / chemistry. Zea mays / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Germination / drug effects. Molecular Structure. Seeds / drug effects. Striga / drug effects. Tandem Mass Spectrometry

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 28215609.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3700
  • [Journal-full-title] Phytochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Phytochemistry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lactones; 0 / Plant Exudates; OL659KIY4X / 4-Butyrolactone
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Maize (Zea mays) / NMR / Prep-HPLC-MS / Seed germination / Striga hermonthica (Orobanchaceae) / Strigolactones / UHPLC-MS-MS / Zealactone
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9. Boonpiyathad T, Yimsawad S, Sangasapaviriya A: The Cost of Asthma Treatment in Phramongkutlao Hospital: Population-Based Study in Adults. J Med Assoc Thai; 2016 Jan;99(1):51-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The Cost of Asthma Treatment in Phramongkutlao Hospital: Population-Based Study in Adults.
  • BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that affects patients' quality of life and work performance.
  • The cost of asthma treatment is a global economic burden.
  • The costs include the direct medical costs and the indirect costs, such as the loss of productivity, which is difficult to quantify.
  • OBJECTIVE: Analyze the cost of asthma treatment in Thailand.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: Seventy-four asthmatic patients who had exacerbation were enrolled in the present study.
  • Self-answer questionnaires were completed by the subjects including characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and level of asthma control by asthma control test (ACT) score.
  • We evaluated the cost of asthma treatment calculated from direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect medical costs.
  • RESULTS: The average total cost per month was 2,752 Thai baht (US$ 86).
  • The direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect medical costs were 52.39%, 20.73%, and 26.88%, respectively.
  • The direct medical costs accounted for quick-relief medications 11.91% and control medications 36.85% of the total medical cost.
  • Loss of productivity, loss of work caused by asthma exacerbation, was the majority cost of non-medical costs.
  • The average cost of treatment in uncontrolled was higher than partly controlled asthmatic patients but without significant difference.
  • Healthcare payment system and age range affected the total costs of asthma treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: The direct non-medical costs and indirect medical costs tend to play an important role of asthma treatment.
  • The data suggested that cost savings could be achieved by improving asthma control.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Asthmatic Agents / economics. Asthma / economics. Cost of Illness. Efficiency. Health Care Costs
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Drug Costs. Female. Health Expenditures. Hospitals. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Quality of Life. Research Design. Surveys and Questionnaires. Thailand. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 27455824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Asthmatic Agents
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10. Freeman SM, Itthipuripat S, Aron AR: High Working Memory Load Increases Intracortical Inhibition in Primary Motor Cortex and Diminishes the Motor Affordance Effect. J Neurosci; 2016 May 18;36(20):5544-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High Working Memory Load Increases Intracortical Inhibition in Primary Motor Cortex and Diminishes the Motor Affordance Effect.
  • Motor affordances occur when the visual properties of an object elicit behaviorally relevant motor representations.
  • Typically, motor affordances only produce subtle effects on response time or on motor activity indexed by neuroimaging/neuroelectrophysiology, but sometimes they can trigger action itself.
  • This is apparent in "utilization behavior," where individuals with frontal cortex damage inappropriately grasp affording objects.
  • This raises the possibility that, in healthy-functioning individuals, frontal cortex helps ensure that irrelevant affordance provocations remain below the threshold for actual movement.
  • In Experiment 1, we tested this "frontal control" hypothesis by "loading" the frontal cortex with an effortful working memory (WM) task (which ostensibly consumes frontal resources) and examined whether this increased EEG measures of motor affordances to irrelevant affording objects.
  • Under low WM load, there were typical motor affordance signatures: an event-related desynchronization in the mu frequency and an increased P300 amplitude for affording (vs nonaffording) objects over centroparietal electrodes.
  • Contrary to our prediction, however, these affordance measures were diminished under high WM load.
  • In Experiment 2, we tested competing mechanisms responsible for the diminished affordance in Experiment 1.
  • We used paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex to measure long-interval cortical inhibition.
  • We found greater long-interval cortical inhibition for high versus low load both before and after the affording object, suggesting that a tonic inhibition state in primary motor cortex could prevent the affordance from provoking the motor system.
  • Overall, our results suggest that a high WM load "sets" the motor system into a suppressed state that mitigates motor affordances.
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Is an irrelevant motor affordance more likely to be triggered when you are under low or high cognitive load?
  • We examined this using physiological measures of the motor affordance while working memory load was varied.
  • We observed a typical motor affordance signature when working memory load was low; however, it was abolished when load was high.
  • Further, there was increased intracortical inhibition in primary motor cortex under high working memory load.
  • This suggests that being in a state of high cognitive load "sets" the motor system to be imperturbable to distracting motor influences.
  • This makes a novel link between working memory load and the balance of excitatory/inhibitory activity in the motor cortex and potentially has implications for disorders of impulsivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Memory, Short-Term. Motor Cortex / physiology. Neural Inhibition
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Evoked Potentials. Female. Humans. Male

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/365544-12$15.00/0.
  • (PMID = 27194334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-2401
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / R01 DA026452
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; EEG / GABA / inhibition / motor affordance / working memory
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