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Items 1 to 10 of about 136735
1. Ji L, Cheng L, Yang Z: Diosgenin, a Novel Aldose Reductase Inhibitor, Attenuates the Galactosemic Cataract in Rats. J Diabetes Res; 2017;2017:7309816
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diosgenin, a Novel Aldose Reductase Inhibitor, Attenuates the Galactosemic Cataract in Rats.
  • OBJECTIVE: To seek efficient aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) with excellent in vitro and in vivo biological activities against rat galactosemic cataract.
  • METHODS: The method was firstly optimized to screen strong ARIs from nonoriented synthetic compounds and natural extracts.
  • Then, diosgenin was assessed on osmotic expansion of primarily cultured lens epithelial cells (LECs) induced by galactose (50 mM).
  • Diosgenin was administered to galactosemic rats by oral (100 and 200 mg/kg) or direct drinking (0.1%) to evaluate its anticataract effects.
  • RESULTS: Diosgenin was found as the strongest ARI with IC<sub>50</sub> of 4.59 × 10<sup>-6</sup> mol/L.
  • Diosgenin (10 <i>μ</i>M) evidently inhibited the formation of tiny vacuoles and upregulation of AR mRNA in LECs.
  • In vivo, diosgenin delayed lens opacification, inhibited the increase of ratio of lens weight to body weight, and decreased AR activity, galactitol level, and AR mRNA expression, especially in the diosgenin drinking (0.1%) group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Diosgenin was an efficient ARI, which not only significantly decreased the LECs' osmotic expansion in vitro but also markedly delayed progression of rat galactosemic cataract in vivo.
  • Thus, diosgenin rich food can be recommended to diabetic subjects as dietary management to postpone the occurrence of sugar cataract, and diosgenin deserves further investigation for chronic diabetic complications.

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  • (PMID = 29038789.001).
  • [ISSN] 2314-6753
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of diabetes research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Diabetes Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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2. Wei Z, Wang Z, Li X, Zhao Z, Deng M, Dong Y, Cao X, Fan G: Comparative Proteomic Analysis of &lt;i&gt;Paulownia fortunei&lt;/i&gt; Response to Phytoplasma Infection with Dimethyl Sulfate Treatment. Int J Genomics; 2017;2017:6542075

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparative Proteomic Analysis of <i>Paulownia fortunei</i> Response to Phytoplasma Infection with Dimethyl Sulfate Treatment.
  • <i>Paulownia fortunei</i> is a widely cultivated economic forest tree species that is susceptible to infection with phytoplasma, resulting in Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB) disease.
  • Diseased <i>P. fortunei</i> is characterized by stunted growth, witches' broom, shortened internodes, and etiolated and smaller leaves.
  • To understand the molecular mechanism of its pathogenesis, we applied isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry approaches to study changes in the proteomes of healthy <i>P. fortunei</i>, PaWB-infected <i>P. fortunei</i>, and PaWB-infected <i>P. fortunei</i> treated with 15 mg·L<sup>-1</sup> or 75 mg·L<sup>-1</sup> dimethyl sulfate.
  • We identified 2969 proteins and 104 and 32 differentially abundant proteins that were phytoplasma infection responsive and dimethyl sulfate responsive, respectively.
  • Based on our analysis of the different proteomes, 27 PaWB-related proteins were identified.
  • The protein-protein interactions of these 27 proteins were analyzed and classified into four groups (photosynthesis-related, energy-related, ribosome-related, and individual proteins).
  • These PaWB-related proteins may help in developing a deeper understanding of how PaWB affects the morphological characteristics of <i>P. fortunei</i> and further establish the mechanisms involved in the response of <i>P. fortunei</i> to phytoplasma.

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  • (PMID = 29038787.001).
  • [ISSN] 2314-436X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Celano M, Rosignolo F, Maggisano V, Pecce V, Iannone M, Russo D, Bulotta S: MicroRNAs as Biomarkers in Thyroid Carcinoma. Int J Genomics; 2017;2017:6496570

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] MicroRNAs as Biomarkers in Thyroid Carcinoma.
  • Optimal management of patients with thyroid cancer requires the use of sensitive and specific biomarkers.
  • For early diagnosis and effective follow-up, the currently available cytological and serum biomarkers, thyroglobulin and calcitonin, present severe limitations.
  • Research on microRNA expression in thyroid tumors is providing new insights for the development of novel biomarkers that can be used to diagnose thyroid cancer and optimize its management.
  • In this review, we will examine some of the methods commonly used to detect and quantify microRNA in biospecimens from patients with thyroid tumor, as well as the potential applications of these techniques for developing microRNA-based biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of thyroid cancers.

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  • (PMID = 29038786.001).
  • [ISSN] 2314-436X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Jones SM: Dissimulation strategies on standard neuropsychological tests: A qualitative investigation. Brain Inj; 2017;31(8):1131-1141

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dissimulation strategies on standard neuropsychological tests: A qualitative investigation.
  • OBJECTIVE: Most previous studies in the area of malingering neuropsychological deficits have focused on the development and validation of measures to detect falsification of symptoms or suboptimal performance.
  • The present study employs qualitative methods to investigate strategies employed by individuals attempting to feign cognitive impairment.
  • This study aims to achieve a richer and more detailed understanding of the phenomenon of feigning.
  • METHOD: Detailed semi-structured interviews were administered to 15 non-neurological individuals instructed to feign cognitive impairment on a standard neuropsychological test battery.
  • The interviews, which considered the strategies used and the thinking underlying participants' choices, were subjected to Thematic Analysis.
  • RESULTS: Thematic Analysis revealed three main organising themes.
  • Participants described Using Strategies, on specific tests and generally across the battery, Having a Rationale for their decisions and spontaneously commented on their Experience of the Task.
  • CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study reveal numerous potentially useful identifiers of feigning strategies, including many not previously reported.
  • The resulting themes point to the development of more effective methods for detecting feigned cognitive impairments and could have a significant impact on the way that neuropsychological testing sessions are conducted.

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  • (PMID = 28585883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-301X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain injury
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Inj
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Dissimulation / malingering / neuropsychology / strategies
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5. Woliński K, Kaznowski J, Klimowicz A, Maciejewski A, Łapińska-Cwojdzińska D, Gurgul E, Car AD, Fichna M, Gut P, Gryczyńska M, Ruchała M: Diagnostic value of selected biochemical markers in the detection of recurrence of medullary thyroid cancer - comparison of calcitonin, procalcitonin, chromogranin A, and carcinoembryonic antigen. Endokrynol Pol; 2017;68(4):434-437
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic value of selected biochemical markers in the detection of recurrence of medullary thyroid cancer - comparison of calcitonin, procalcitonin, chromogranin A, and carcinoembryonic antigen.
  • INTRODUCTION: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a malignancy of the thyroid gland, which derives from parafollicular C cells.
  • Periodic measurement of biochemical markers of MTC remains a crucial part of patient follow-up and disease monitoring.
  • The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic value of four selected markers - calcitonin (Ct), procalcitonin (PCT), chromogranin A (CgA), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with histopathologically confirmed MTC hospitalised in a single department between January 2015 and December 2015 were included in the study.
  • Patients were subdivided into two groups: a remission group and an active disease group, based upon serum markers of MTC and imaging.
  • Levels of Ct, PCT, CgA, and CEA were compared between the groups.
  • RESULTS: Forty-four patients were included; 20 patients presented active disease and 24 were in remission.
  • All patients with active disease had Ct exceeding the upper limit of normal range (10 pg/mL) - for that threshold the sensitivity was 100.0% and the specificity was 73.9%; for the best-fit threshold of 121.0 pg/mL the specificity was 95.8% with sensitivity 100.0%.
  • There was significant correlation between Ct and PCT - p < 0.000001, r = 0.93.
  • All patients with active disease exceeded the upper limit of the normal range (0.5 ng/mL) - for that threshold the sensitivity was 100.0% and the specificity was 83.3%; for the best-fit threshold of 0.95 ng/mL the specificity was 95.8% with sensitivity 100.0%.
  • In case of CEA for the best-fit threshold of 12.66 ng/mL the specificity was 100.0% with sensitivity 57.9%; for CgA the best-fit threshold was 75.66 ng/mL with specificity 83.3% and sensitivity 75.0%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that PCT can be considered as an equivalent alternative for measurement of calcitonin.
  • On the other hand, it is also worth noting that MTC can be a rare cause of very high levels of PTC not resulting from infectious diseases.
  • The diagnostic value of CEA and chromogranin A is much lower and can be within the normal range even in patients with advanced, metastatic MTC.
  • They should be used only as accessory markers.

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  • (PMID = 28585679.001).
  • [ISSN] 2299-8306
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; calcitonin / carcinoembryonic antigen / chromogranin A / medullary thyroid cancer / procalcitonin
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6. Serra MC, Blumenthal JB, Addison OR, Miller AJ, Goldberg AP, Ryan AS: Effects of Weight Loss with and without Exercise on Regional Body Fat Distribution in Postmenopausal Women. Ann Nutr Metab; 2017;70(4):312-320
figshare. supplemental materials - Supporting Data and Materials for the article .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of Weight Loss with and without Exercise on Regional Body Fat Distribution in Postmenopausal Women.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: The purpose was to determine whether lifestyle interventions have different effects on regional fat in women with normal glucose tolerance vs. impaired glucose tolerance (NGT vs. IGT).
  • METHODS: Changes in glucose metabolism (2-h oral glucose-tolerance tests), android to gynoid fat mass ratio (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA]), visceral to subcutaneous abdominal fat area ratio (CT), and abdominal to gluteal subcutaneous fat cell weight (FCW; adipose tissue biopsies) were determined in 60 overweight postmenopausal women (45-80 years) following 6 months of weight loss alone (WL; n = 28) or with aerobic exercise (AEX + WL; n = 32).
  • RESULTS: The interventions led to ∼8% decrease in weight, but only the AEX + WL group improved fitness (↑11% in VO2max) and reduced the android-to-gynoid fat mass ratio (↓5%; p < 0.05).
  • Both NGT and IGT groups reduced visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat areas and abdominal and gluteal FCWs, which related to improvements in homeostatic model assessment (r = 0.34-0.42) and 2-h glucose (r = 0.34-0.35), respectively (p < 0.05).
  • The decline in FCW was 2× greater in women with IGT following WL (p < 0.05).
  • The ratios of abdominal-to-gluteal FCW did not change following either intervention.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The mechanisms by which WL with and without exercise impact regional fat loss should be explored as reductions in abdominal fat area and subcutaneous FCW appear to influence glucose metabolism.
  • This is a work of the U.S.
  • Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States.
  • Foreign copyrights may apply.
  • Published by S.
  • Karger AG, Basel.

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  • (PMID = 28595173.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9697
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nutrition & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Nutr. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / P30 AG028747; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG020116; United States / RRD VA / RX / IK2 RX001788; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG019310; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK072488; United States / RRD VA / RX / IK2 RX000944; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR016500; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR014288
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Aerobic exercise / Body fat distribution / Postmenopausal women / Weight loss
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7. Silva DA, Nai GA, Giuffrida R, Barbero RC, Kuhn JMP, da Silva AC, Pereira RHZ, Abbade MF, Zulim LFDC, Pereira CSG, Andrade SF: Comparison between fish and linseed oils administered orally for the treatment of experimentally induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca in rabbits. Open Vet J; 2017;7(3):277-285

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison between fish and linseed oils administered orally for the treatment of experimentally induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca in rabbits.
  • The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of two sources of omega 3 and 6, fish oil (FO) and linseed oil (LO), orally administered, alone or in combination, for treating experimentally induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in rabbits.
  • Twenty-eight New Zealand rabbits were used in this study.
  • Seven animals were allocated to the C group (negative control), and KCS was induced in 21 animals by topically applying 1% atropine sulfate drops for 7 days.
  • Treatment with atropine was maintained throughout the study period (12 weeks).
  • The rabbits were divided into 3 treatment groups containing 7 animals each: FO group, LO group and FLO group (FO and LO).
  • The animals were evaluated using the Schirmer Tear Test I (STT I), Rose Bengal Test (RBT), fluorescein test (FT), tear film break-up time (TBUT), and conjunctival and histopathological analysis.
  • There was a significant increase in STT I and TBUT values in treatment groups, but the increase occurred earlier in the FO group.
  • The results of the RBT and FT were similar among treatment groups, except FT, in the FLO group, negative staining was only in 12 weeks.
  • There was a significant decrease in the number of goblet cells in the FLO group compared with the other groups.
  • The results demonstrated that orally administered of FO and LO improved the clinical signs of KCS.
  • However, improvement occurred earlier in the FO group.
  • Using oils in combination did not provide additional benefits.
  • These results contribute to the future development of new oral formulations as adjuvant therapies for KCS.

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  • (PMID = 29038781.001).
  • [ISSN] 2226-4485
  • [Journal-full-title] Open veterinary journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Open Vet J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Libya
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Fish oil / Keratoconjunctivitis sicca / Linseed oil / Omega 3 and 6 / Oral
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8. Kubba MAG: Pulmonary ossification and microlithiasis in a bitch with multicentric mammary tumors. Open Vet J; 2017;7(3):273-276

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pulmonary ossification and microlithiasis in a bitch with multicentric mammary tumors.
  • Microliths and ossification were found in the lungs of a 12-year-old bitch suffering from compound mammary gland tumor which has disseminated in the inguinal lymph node glands and the lungs.
  • Pulmonary ossification appeared grossly as irregular stony sharp particles which infiltrated the lung tissue and were readily recognizable from under the pleura as grayish sharp protruding particles.
  • Microscopic examination revealed the existence of intra-alveolar single or multilobular particles of ossification which are formed of lamellated osseous substance with osteocytes in lacunae.
  • Microlith particles were also seen and were smaller, usually solitary and less frequent.
  • They comprised strongly basophilic smooth laminated spherical particles which may enclose faintly stained substances.
  • Both structures were not associated with inflammatory response.
  • Larger particles appeared as white miliary spots by radiography.
  • This article documents for a very rare case of pulmonary microlithiasis and ossification in a dog.

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  • (PMID = 29038780.001).
  • [ISSN] 2226-4485
  • [Journal-full-title] Open veterinary journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Open Vet J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Libya
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Multicentric mammary tumors / Pulmonary microlithiasis / Pulmonary ossification
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9. Williams D, Hewitt H: Tear ferning in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Open Vet J; 2017;7(3):268-272

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tear ferning in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca.
  • This study evaluates tear ferning as an ancillary technique for the evaluation of the canine tear film in normal eyes and eyes affected by keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS).
  • Thirty dogs with KCS and 50 control dogs with normal tear film were evaluated with a full ophthalmoscopic examination and a Schirmer tear test type 1 (STT) determined before tear samples were obtained from the medial canthus with a microhaematocrit capillary tube.
  • 10ul of tear was placed on a microscope slide and the time to first formation of a fern of crystallised tear solute was determined.
  • The appearance of the ferning pattern was graded and correlated with the STT value.
  • All eyes with KCS had abnormal ferning patterns while 39 out of the 50 normal dogs (78%) had so-called 'normal' ferning patterns.
  • The mean STT for dogs showing 'normal' ferning patterns was 20.6mm/min for the left eye and 21.3mm/min for the right eye.
  • STT values for eyes with 'abnormal' ferning patterns were 10.9mm/min and 12.4mm/min, these differing from the normal eyes with STT above 15mm/min significantly.
  • These findings suggest that tear ferning could be a valuable technique for assessment of the tear film in dogs with KCS.

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  • (PMID = 29038779.001).
  • [ISSN] 2226-4485
  • [Journal-full-title] Open veterinary journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Open Vet J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Libya
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Dog / Dry eye / Ferning / Keratoconjunctivitis sicca / Tear
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10. Zhang R, Gong X, Folk R: Evidence for continual hybridization rather than hybrid speciation between &lt;i&gt;Ligularia duciformis&lt;/i&gt; and &lt;i&gt;L&lt;/i&gt;. &lt;i&gt;paradoxa&lt;/i&gt; (Asteraceae). PeerJ; 2017;5:e3884

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evidence for continual hybridization rather than hybrid speciation between <i>Ligularia duciformis</i> and <i>L</i>. <i>paradoxa</i> (Asteraceae).
  • BACKGROUND: Hybrids possess phenotypic traits that are often intermediate between their parental taxa, which commonly serves as evidence of hybridization in morphological analyses.
  • Natural hybridization has been shown to occur frequently in <i>Ligularia</i> (Asteraceae).
  • In a previous study, <i>Ligularia</i> ×<i>maoniushanensis</i> was demonstrated as a natural hybrid species between <i>L. duciformis</i> and <i>L</i>.
  • <i>paradoxa</i> based on morphological and reproductive traits.
  • METHODS: We used three chloroplast (cpDNA) fragments (<i>psb</i>A-<i>trn</i>H, <i>trn</i>L-<i>rpl</i>32 and <i>trn</i>Q-5'<i>rps</i>16), the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS), and co-dominant SSR and dominant ISSR markers to study natural hybridization between <i>L. duciformis</i> and <i>L. paradoxa</i> growing sympatrically in two locations.
  • Parental taxa were inferred using network analyses of cpDNA and nrITS haplotypes.
  • Admixture among individuals was examined using the Bayesian clustering programs STRUCTURE and NewHybrids based on the SSR and ISSR data; and potential introgression in the SSR loci was assessed using the INTROGRESS package.
  • RESULTS: The putative parental species were clearly distinguished from other sympatric <i>Ligularia</i> species by nrITS data, and <i>L.</i> ×<i>maoniushanensis</i> individuals were confirmed to be the hybrid offspring of <i>L</i>.
  • <i>duciformis</i> and <i>L</i>. <i>paradoxa</i>.
  • Moreover, introgression was detected among several individuals morphologically identified as <i>L</i>.
  • <i>duciformis</i> or <i>L</i>.
  •  <i>paradoxa</i>.
  • Analyses of the cpDNA data revealed primarily unidirectional hybridization between <i>L. duciformis</i> and <i>L. paradoxa</i>, with <i>L</i>.
  • <i>paradoxa</i> as the maternal parent in Mt.
  • Maoniu, whereas bidirectional but asymmetrical hybridization was inferred to occur in Heihai Lake.
  • The STRUCTURE analyses based on the SSR data detected two distinct clusters among the three taxa.
  • The NewHybrids analyses showed that individuals circumscribed as <i>L.</i> ×<i>maoniushanensis</i> were dominated by early- and later-generation and backcrossing hybrids.
  • The NewHybrids results based on the ISSR data were congruent with SSR results.
  • In addition, introgression was detected in some SSR loci, and heterogeneity among loci was found in terms of detected patterns of introgression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide strong evidence for hybridization and introgression between <i>L</i>.
  • <i>duciformis</i> and <i>L</i>. <i>paradoxa</i>.
  • <i>Ligularia</i> ×<i>maoniushanensis</i> was demonstrated to be of hybrid origin.
  • Since no evident reproductive isolation was found between the two parental species, detected hybrids appear to be part of hybrid swarms resulting from frequent and ongoing gene flow, which might impede the formation of a new hybrid species.

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  • [ISSN] 2167-8359
  • [Journal-full-title] PeerJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PeerJ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ligularia / Natural hybridization / SSR and ISSR loci / cpDNA / nrITS
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